Biomethanation allows the conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide to methane. This bioconversion can present an interesting technological brick in the case of organic biomass and waste treatment and renewable energy production sectors:
(i) Coupled with anaerobic digestion and the electrolysis of water, it makes it possible to transfer and store in the gas network surplus electricity from solar or wind sources. By 2050, the installed capacity of Power-to-Gas could enable a production of 14 to 46 TWhPCS of biomethane:
(ii) coupled with the gasification / pyrolysis of biomass or refuse derived fuel, it makes it possible to upgrade the syngas to injectable biomethane in the gas network. In 2050, the biomethane production potential by methanation of syngas is estimated at 250 TWh:
Whatever the context, research is needed to improve the understanding of key processes in order to consider optimization of the biomethanation process. In particular, since H 2 is a gas that is poorly soluble in water, the transfer of gas-liquid material is a limiting step. In addition, the microorganisms of the biomethanation are very sensitive to high concentrations of H2, CO, dissolved CO2. As a result, the interactions between physical and biological processes are strong and need to be clarified to improve the performance and modes of biomethanation processes.